Estrogen is the major female hormone. It is primarily produced by the ovaries and small amounts are produced in the adrenal glands and fat cells. During pregnancy, the placenta also makes estrogen.
Estrogen promotes the development and maintenance of female characteristics in the human body, including breasts, pubic and armpit hair, and the regulation of the menstrual cycle and reproductive system.
Estrogen also plays a big role in reproductive and sexual development, including puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause.
Progesterone is produced by the ovaries after ovulation. During pregnancy, the placenta also produces progesterone.
Progesterone is responsible for
- Preparing the lining of the uterus for a fertilized egg
- Supporting pregnancy
- Suppressing estrogen production after ovulation
Testosterone is produced by the adrenal glands and ovaries. This hormone is produced in small amounts and is responsible for
- Sexual desire
- Regulation of the menstrual cycle
- Bone and muscle strength
Hormones Change Over Time
During puberty, the production of your female sex hormones increases, especially estrogen, which results in
- Breast development
- Growth of pubic and armpit hair
- Growth spurt
- Increase in body fat in the hips and thighs
- Maturation of the ovaries, uterus, and vagina
- Start of the menstrual cycle
Most females enter puberty between the ages of 8 and 13.
Childbirth and Breastfeeding
Perimenopause and Menopause
During perimenopause, hormone production in your ovaries slows down–estrogen levels start to fluctuate and progesterone levels start a steady decline. As you near menopause, your vagina may become less lubricated, you may experience a decrease in your libido (sexual desire), and your menstrual cycle becomes irregular.
You’ve reached menopause when you have gone 12 months without a period. Menopause usually occurs around age 50. Estrogen and progesterone levels remain steady at low levels.
Hormone Imbalance Treatment Available at Newton-Wellesley OB/GYN
Don’t wait for your annual well-woman exam to seek treatment for hormone imbalance. Our OB/GYN physicians at Newton-Wellesley OB/GYN are here to help. Give us a call at (617) 332-2345 in Newton or (508) 668-5555 in Walpole to schedule an appointment. For your convenience, you may also request an appointment online.
Hormone Imbalance FAQs
Women who have a hormone imbalance may experience one or more of the following symptoms:
- Heavy, irregular or painful periods
- Osteoporosis (weak, brittle bones)
- Hot flashes and night sweats
- Mood swings and/or depression
- Weight gain
- Increased sensitivity to cold or heat
- Dry skin
- Vaginal dryness
- Painful sex due to a lack of vaginal lubrication
- Decreased sex drive
- An increase in urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to a thinning of the urethra
- Breast tenderness
- Constipation and diarrhea
- Acne during or just before menstruation
There are numerous possible causes of hormone imbalance in women. Some causes are due to external factors, such as stress and hormone medications, and other causes may be due to medical conditions such as
During your consultation, your Newton-Wellesley OB/GYN physician may order a blood test for you that checks your estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone levels, as well as your thyroxine (thyroid hormone), insulin, and cortisol levels. There may be more tests ordered based on your symptoms.
Your doctor will also conduct a pelvic exam to check for any lumps or cysts. A biopsy may be taken of any abnormally appearing tissue. If required, your doctor may order imaging tests such as an ultrasound, MRI, or thyroid scan for an accurate diagnosis.
Treatment for hormone imbalance depends on the cause. Once your doctor figures out what is causing your hormone imbalance, treatment recommendations may include:
- Hormone control or birth control regulate menstrual cycles and symptoms.
- Vaginal estrogen reduces symptoms of vaginal dryness.
- Hormone replacement medications reduce symptoms associated with menopause like hot flashes and night sweats.
- Clomiphene (Clomid) and Letrozole (Femara) help stimulate ovulation for women suffering from PCOS.
- Gonadotropin injections increase the chances of pregnancy.
- Metformin helps manage or lower blood sugar levels.
- Levothyroxine helps improve symptoms of hypothyroidism.
- In-vitro fertilization may help those with PCOS complications get pregnant.
- Lifestyle changes (e.g., losing weight, keeping a healthy diet, avoiding stress, getting enough sleep).